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Change Management
      At the core of any major change programme is the process of strategy choice and formulation. Preparation for implementation will be more effective if the 'stakeholders' involved with the changes have been identified, if the impact of change on them has been assessed, and if they have been involved in the diagnosis and planning where possible and appropriate. Three necessary conditions for effective change are suggested:
• Awareness of the stakeholders and their understanding and belief of the vision, strategy, and implementation plans.
• Capability of the stakeholders to believe they can develop the necessary skills to take advantage of the changes.
• Inclusion of the stakeholders in the value for the new position they will hold after the change, so that they would actually choose to fit in them. 
     The capability of creating change is:
                                                             EC = D x K x V
where EC is the Energy for change, D is the Dissatisfaction with the present situation, K is the Knowledge of what needs to be done, and V is the shared Vision of what is expected.
     The Effectiveness of the change initiative is:
                                                               E = Q x A
where Q is the Quality of the implementation plan, and A is the Acceptance of the change process.
     Processes necessary in an innovating change process:
• Power and innovation to the people with the will of leading the change.
• Problem definition: gathering information for saleable innovations.
• Coalition building: from cheerleading peers, 'horse trading', to blessings from the top.
• Mobilization and completion: keeping the action phase active, handling opposition and blocking interference, maintaining momentum, secondary redesign, and external communication.
     Change implementation would therefore pave the way for the acceptance that:
• It is permissible to have intangible goods (such as customer intimacy, communication and involvement, learning organisation or knowledge management) as long as it is backed and supported by concrete, tangible and measurable actions.
• It is permissible to find non-direct way to achieve results.
     Change implementation then creates an environment more favourable to the implementation of a KM programme which incorporates intangible goods:
• KM actions are expected to deliver performance goals.
• A mental link is created with individuals between intangible goods and the use of intangible or tacit knowledge.
    Such an environment, in which terms such as internal communication and knowledge sharing are not new to people, would be expected to be more approving for the implementation of KM procedures as 'communities of practice', or 'good practices'.
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